This article is inspired by Dr Dhiya Houssein’s interest in emotions and health.

Stress has become an almost inevitable part of our fast-paced lives. While we often think about stress’s mental and emotional impacts, its effects on our physical health, particularly our bones, are equally profound and deserve attention. This blog explores the hidden costs of stress on bone and general health, shedding light on why managing stress is crucial for overall well-being.

The Biology of Stress

Stress is the body’s natural response to challenges and threats, activating the ‘fight or flight’ response. This involves the release of hormones such as cortisol and adrenaline, which prepare the body to deal with immediate dangers. However, these hormones can harm various bodily systems when stress becomes chronic.

Cortisol and Bone Health

Cortisol, often called the ‘stress hormone,’ plays a significant role in our body’s stress response. While essential for normal bodily functions, elevated cortisol levels over extended periods can lead to various health issues, including:

  1. Bone Density Reduction: High cortisol levels can interfere with bone remodelling, the process by which old bone is replaced by new bone tissue. This interference can lead to a decrease in bone density, increasing the risk of osteoporosis and fractures.
  2. Calcium Absorption: Chronic stress and high cortisol levels can impair calcium absorption in the intestines and increase calcium excretion in the urine, leading to weaker bones.
  3. Inflammation: Prolonged stress can lead to increased inflammation in the body, further deteriorating bone health and contributing to conditions such as arthritis.

Stress and General Health

Beyond bone health, chronic stress can wreak havoc on general health in multiple ways:

  1. Cardiovascular Health: Persistent stress is linked to high blood pressure, heart disease, and increased risk of stroke. The constant release of stress hormones can damage blood vessels and the heart, leading to long-term cardiovascular issues.
  2. Immune System: Stress weakens the immune system, making the body more susceptible to infections and illnesses. It can also slow down the healing process, exacerbating existing health conditions.
  3. Digestive System: Stress can disrupt digestive functions, leading to conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), ulcers, and other gastrointestinal issues.
  4. Mental Health: Chronic stress is a major contributor to mental health disorders, including anxiety, depression, and burnout. These conditions can further compound physical health problems, creating a vicious cycle of deteriorating health.

Managing Stress for Better Health

Given stress’s extensive impact on bone and general health, adopting effective stress management strategies is crucial. Here are some practical steps to help manage stress:

  1. Regular Exercise: Physical activity is a powerful stress reliever. It boosts endorphins, improves mood, and strengthens bones and muscles.
  2. Healthy Diet: A balanced diet rich in calcium, vitamin D, and other essential nutrients supports bone health and well-being. Avoiding excessive caffeine and alcohol can also help manage stress levels.
  3. Adequate Sleep: Quality sleep is vital for stress management. Establish a regular sleep routine and create a restful environment to improve sleep quality.
  4. Mindfulness and Relaxation Techniques: Yoga, meditation, and deep breathing exercises can help calm the mind and reduce stress.
  5. Social Support: Connecting with friends and family provides emotional support and can significantly reduce stress.
  6. Professional Help: Seeking guidance from healthcare professionals or therapists can provide tailored strategies to manage stress effectively.


Stress is an inescapable part of life, but the right strategies can manage its impact on bone health and general health. By understanding the connection between stress and health, we can take proactive steps to mitigate its effects, leading to a healthier, more balanced life. Let us strive to prioritise our well-being, recognising that managing stress is about mental peace and maintaining a strong, healthy body.

For more information and resources on bone health and stress management, visit the London Osteoporosis Clinic.

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