Calcium is a major building-block of bone tissue (the skeleton houses 99% of the body’s calcium stores). Calcium regulates muscle contractions, including heartbeat and making sure blood clots normally, as well as several other functions. The daily recommended allowance of calcium for an adult is 700mg.
A lack of calcium could lead to a condition called rickets in children and osteomalacia or osteoporosis in later life. Find out if you are getting enough calcium in your diet here.
Vitamin D is key as it assists your body to absorb calcium – the two go hand-in-hand.
Children from the age of 1 year and adults need 10 micrograms of vitamin D a day. This includes pregnant and breastfeeding women, and people at risk of vitamin D deficiency.
From about late March/early April to the end of September, the majority of people should be able to get all the vitamin D they need from sunlight on their skin.
There are a number of other foods, nutrients and vitamins, besides calcium and vitamin D, that help to prevent osteoporosis and contribute to bone, muscle and joint health, including protein, fruit and vegetables, and other vitamins and minerals:
Adequate dietary protein is essential for optimal healthy bones mass gain during childhood and adolescence. It’s also responsible for preserving bone mass with ageing. Lack of protein robs the muscles of strength, which heightens the risk of falls, and contributes to poor recovery in patients who have had a fracture.
Lean red meat, poultry and fish, as well as eggs and dairy foods, are excellent sources of animal protein. Vegetable sources of protein include legumes (e.g. lentils, kidney beans), soya products (e.g. tofu), grains, nuts and seeds.
Fruit and Vegetables
Fruit and vegetables contain an array of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and alkaline salts – some or all of which can have a beneficial effect on bone. Studies have shown higher fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with beneficial effects on bone density in elderly men and women.
Other vitamins and minerals
Magnesium plays an important role in forming bone mineral. Magnesium deficiency is rare in well-nourished populations. The elderly are sometimes risk of mild magnesium deficiency, as magnesium absorption decreases with age. Particularly good sources of magnesium include green vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, unrefined grains and fish.
The role of vitamin A in osteoporosis is controversial. Vitamin A is present as a compound called retinol in foods of animal origin, such as liver and other offal, fish liver oils, dairy foods and egg yolk. Some plant foods contain a precursor of vitamin A, for example in green leafy vegetables, and red and yellow coloured fruits and vegetables. Consumption of vitamin A in amounts well above the recommended daily intake may have adverse effects on bone.
Vitamin K is required for the correct mineralization of healthy bones. Some evidence suggests low vitamin K levels lead to low bone density and increased risk of fracture in the elderly. Vitamin K sources include leafy green vegetables such as lettuce, spinach and cabbage, liver and some fermented cheeses and soya bean products.
This mineral is require for bone tissue renewal and mineralization. Severe deficiency is usually associate with calorie and protein malnutrition and contributes to impaired healthy bone growth in children. Milder degrees of zinc deficiency have been report in the elderly and could potentially contribute to poor bone status. Sources of zinc include lean red meat, poultry, whole grain cereals, pulses, and legumes.
B Vitamins and Homocysteine
High blood levels of the amino acid homocysteine have been suggesting in some studies to be associated with lower bone density and an increased risk of hip fracture in the elderly. Vitamins B6 and B12, as well as folic acid, play a role in changing homocysteine into other amino acids for use by the body, so it is possible that they might play a protective role in osteoporosis. Research is ongoing as to whether supplementation with these B vitamins might reduce fracture risk.